Epigraph. Cited in Centro Paulista, São Paulo e a sua evolução, 7. Note that state “presi-
dent” is equivalent to a governor.
1. Hirschman, The Strategy of Economic Development, 132, 185.
2. Hirschman, The Strategy of Economic Development, 185. Emphasis mine.
3. Hirschman is rightly recognized as an exceptionally humane economic thinker,
which makes his unrefl exive use of such language especially noteworthy. On his life
and work, see Adelman, Worldly Philosopher.
4. Harvey, Spaces of Global Capitalism, 75.
5. See the discussion in Leff, “Economic Development and Regional Inequality,”
6. For an extended discussion of this see my “Developing Inequality,” 1– 18.
7. Harvey, Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference, 320. My thanks to Seth
Garﬁ eld for bringing this comment by Harvey to my attention.
8. On the Italian case, see Schneider, Italy’s “Southern Question.”
9. The foundational text for this vision of Brazil is Euclides da Cunha’s Os sertões,
ﬁ rst published in 1902, and translated into English (1957) by Samuel Putnam as
Rebellion in the Backlands. It has been reiterated by many scholars and journalists
since, including Jacques Lambert, Os dois Brasis. Throughout I will be using the more
familiar term “Nordeste,” but during the period under discussion the more common
term was “Norte.”
10. Among the many ﬁ ne monographs on colonial São Paulo, see especially Mon-
teiro, Negros da terra; Metcalf, Family and Frontier in Colonial Brazil; and Blaj, Trama
11. For a fuller discussion of the changing layout and ongoing transformation of the
city of São Paulo, see Saes, “São Paulo republicana,” 226– 234.
12. On representations of the Nordeste as a region of misery and mayhem, see
Sarzynski, “Revolutionizing Identities”; see also Albuquerque, A invenção do Nordeste e
outras artes; and Blake, The Vigorous Core of Our Nationality.
13. For example, a mass- market paperback (published in 1984 in São Paulo in the