NOTES
INTRODUCTION
1 Quoted in León y León, ‘‘El problema sexual,’’ 71. Emphasis added.
2 Chavarría, José Carlos Mariátegui; Klaren, ‘‘The Origins of Modern Peru’’; Pike,
The Modern History of Peru.
3 See Basadre, Historia de la República del Perú, vols. 8, 9; Burga and Flores Ga-
lindo, Apogeo y Crisis; Gilbert, La Oligarquía Peruana; Klaren, ‘‘The Origins of
Modern Peru’’; Miller, ‘‘The Coastal Elite’’; Nugent, ‘‘Building the State, Making
the Nation’’; Mallon, Peasant and Nation.
4 Gamonalismo is the term used to describe a variety of local bossism existing in the
Peruvian highlands, in which the gamonal exercised political, economic, and
even judicial power on the basis of personal dependence, servile labor, paternalis-
tic control, violence, and the manipulation of local cultural codes. For an over-
view of gamonalismo, see Burga and Flores Galindo, Apogeo y Crisis, 104–13. See
also various essays in Poole, ed., Unruly Order; Manrique, Yawar Mayu; and
Jacobsen, Mirages of Transition.
5 López, ‘‘El estado oligárquico en el Perú’’ and ‘‘Crisis, formas, y reformas del
estado,’’ both included in López, El Dios mortal.
6 According to a commission of the Peruvian senate in 1895, ‘‘The man who does
not know how to read or write is not, nor can he be, a citizen in modern society.’’
Quoted in Mallon, Peasant and Nation, 275.
7 Mallon, Peasant and Nation; Thurner, ‘‘ ‘Republicanos.’ ’’
8 Mallon, Peasant and Nation, 315.
9 Burga and Flores Galindo, Apogeo y Crisis; Klaren, ‘‘Origins of Modern Peru’’;
Pike, The History of Modern Peru.
10 Taylor, Bandits and Politics in Peru; Burga and Flores Galindo, Apogeo y Crisis,
140–44.
11 Mallon, The Defense of Community; Klaren, Modernization, Dislocation and Ap-
rismo; Jacobsen, Mirages of Transition.
12 Burga and Flores Galindo, Apogeo y Crisis, 146.
13 See especially Herbold, ‘‘Developments in the Peruvian Administrative System.’’
The Peruvian state may be depicted as ‘‘highly despotic, yet infrastructurally
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