Audiencia Representatives of the
Royal Court in the Americas.
After the Viceroyalty, the most
inclusive administrative unit in
the New World. Santafé was an
Audiencia, achieving viceroyalty
status only in the eighteenth
barrio Quarter of a city or town.
bastardo/a Child born out of
wedlock, with at least one parent
who was already married.
cabildo Town or city council, or
the council governing an indige-
nous resguardo.
cacica Female hereditary lord,
a member of the indigenous
cacicazgo Hereditary chiefdom.
cacique Male hereditary lord,
a member of the indigenous
calidad The plotting of individual
status according to ethnicity or
race, congregation, morality,
privilege, and aspect. 
cañas, juego de Game of canes, an
Iberian form of jousting.
capitán Member of the indige-
nous nobility ranking under the
cacique, heading a portion of a
capitanía Section of a Muisca
community. Also called sybyn in
the native vernacular.
casta Caste; a socioracial
umbrella category used in the
late colonial period. In census
records from Nueva Granada,
it referred to people of mixed
descent. “Casta” has also been
employed by historians to refer
to a hierarchical system of de-
grees of racial mixing, anchored
by the “pure” poles of “Indian,”
“black,” and “Spaniard.”
casta painting Eighteenth-
century pictorial representations
of degrees of racial mixing,
mainly produced in Mexico for
European consumption.
cédula Royal decree.
chontal Native person not fluent
in Spanish. Also called indio
converso Convert to Christian-
ity. See “New Christian,” “Old
criollo Settler of Spanish descent,
born in the New World. The term
only rarely appears in the docu-
mentation from the Nuevo Reino
de Granada.
cuarterón Quadroon. Employed
in the Nuevo Reino to refer to
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