Raymond Pearl, “Biology of Population Growth,” and The Biology of Population
Growth. Pearl’s curve was indebted to the statistical work of Alfred Lotka (see
Sharon Kingsland, The Evolution of American Ecology). See also Sabine Höhler,
Spaceship Earth in the Environmental Age.
On the earth as a ﬁnite container, see Höhler, Spaceship Earth.
See Margaret Sanger, Proceedings of the World Population Conference. On this con-
ference, see E. Ramsden, “Carving up Population Science.” Comments from the
participants from Japan, China, Siam, India, Argentine, Chile, Peru, and Brazil
were largely absent in the official transcripts of the conference. Exceptions to this
silence were a supplementary paper submitted by Rajani Kanta Das, an Indian
economist researching at the League of Nations’ International Labor Office, and
a comment offered in discussion by Kiyo Sue Inui from the Tokyo University of
On the history of progressivism, feminism, and projects of racial uplift within the
spectrum of eugenics, see Childs, Modernism and Eugenics; Hustak, “Radical Inti-
macies”; Kline, Building a Better Race; M. Mitchell, Righteous Propagation; Paul,
Controlling Human Heredity; Pernick, The Black Stork; Stern, Eugenic Nation.
On the global history of eugenics, see M. B. Adams, The Wellborn Science; Ahlu-
walia, Reproductive Restraints; Campbell, Race and Empire; Davie, Poverty Knowl-
edge in South Africa; Dubow, Scientiﬁc Racism in Modern South Africa; Fruhstuck,
Colonizing Sex; Hodges, “Indian Eugenics in an Age of Reform”; Kevles, In the
Name of Eugenics; McLaren, Our Own Master Race; Park, “Bodies for Empire”;
Stepan, “The Hour of Eugenics”; Stern, Eugenic Nation.
Pearl’s relation to eugenics has been debated in the historiography. The portrayal
of Pearl as simply anti- eugenics, and thus anti- racist, has been revised to attend
to the subtleties of Pearl’s critique as existing within the scope of eugenics, his
continued interest in the scientiﬁc management of human breeding, and his
racist views (see Allan, “Old Wine in New Bottles”; Barkan, The Retreat of Scien-
tiﬁc Racism; Mezzano, “The Progressive Origins of Eugenics Critics”). I think,
however, the historical account of eugenics in this period needs to be even fur-