Hamilton's writings will be cited as follows: "P 2: 3" indicates the second volume, at
page 3, of The Papers ofAlexander Hamilton, ed. Harold C. Syrett (New York, 1961-1979).
"L 2:3" indicates the second volume, at page 3, of The Works of Alexander Hamilton, ed.
Henry Cabot Lodge (New York, 1885). (Lodge's edition is superseded in every respect by
Syrett's excellent work, most of which unfortunately had not yet appeared during my re-
search.) "Fl, p. 3" indicates the first number of The Federalist, at page 3, in the edition by
Jacob E. Cooke (Cleveland and New York, 1961). In quoting from these editions, I have
occasionally modernized or corrected spelling and punctuation. The best one-volume
collection of Hamilton's work is Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton,
ed. Morton]. Frisch (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy
The quotations in this paragraph are from: To Tobias Lear (2 January 1800) P 24: 155 ~
F9, p. 51 ~ Montesquieu, Considerations sur les Causes de la Grandeur des Romains et de
leur Decadence (Amsterdam, 1734), chap. 1.
2 William Pierce, in Max Farrand, ed., Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (New
Haven and London, 1966), 3: 89. Bower Aly, The Rhetoric of Alexander Hamilton (New
York, 1941), pp. 62,189.
3 Jefferson to Madison (21 September 1795). See also Jefferson's earlier letter of 7 July 1793,
urging Madison to "take up your pen ... and cut him to pieces"~ Madison, reluctantly
acceding to this appeal, answered Hamilton's "Pacificus" defense of President Washing-
ton's Proclamation of Neutrality. See also the later letter of 5 April 1798 fromJefferson to
4 In Life, Letters, and Journals of George Ticknor (Boston, 1876), 1:261, the journal reports
(for 10 December 1818 to 12January 1819) a conversation in which, speaking of Hamilton
"with great admiration," Talleyrand "said that he had known during his life, many of the
more marked men of his time, but that he had never, on the whole, known one equal to