1 names ­ will be given in the name order conventionally used in Japan, ­Japa­nese
family name first and given name second.
2 Director Ōbayashi Nobuhiko recounts this story in “Boku no Kadokawa
3 See, for example, Barad, Meeting the Universe Halfway.
4 The emphasis is ­ here on an emergent media ecol­ogy that functions according to a
new set of princi­ples, not an ecol­ogy of new media.
5 See Neale, “Melo Talk.” Theorists such as Christine Gledhill criticized Neale’s
position as reifying genre categories and returning to the “taxonomic trap,” while
Gledhill prefers to focus on the reasons genres have been constructed. See Gled-
hill, “Rethinking Genre,” 221.
6 Genette, Paratexts, 2.
7 Genette, Paratexts, 410.
8 Gray, Show Sold Separately, 39.
9 Gray, Show Sold Separately, 26.
10 Altman, “A Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre.”
11 Caldwell, “Para-­industry.”
12 This conceptualization draws on neocybernetic ideas of emergence, which differ
slightly from older, classical cybernetic ideas of emergence. As Bruce Clark and Mark
Hansen mention, this means that “in contrast to the technosciences of emergence, it
proceeds not (like some latter-­ d ay Herbert Spencer) from the ­ simple to the complex,
but rather by way of system-­specific and system-­ in ternal reductions of hypercom-
plexity to ordered complexity. This is the meaning of von Foerster’s statement that
it is we who invent the environment that we perceive.” See Clark and Hansen,
“Introduction: Neocybernetic Emergence,” in Emergence and Embodiment, 13.
13 Williams, “Is a Radical Genre Criticism Pos­si­ble?” In Eu­rope, ­ there are naturally
more investigations into non-­Hollywood genres such as the Italian giallo or the
German heimatfilm. ­ These mostly follow the usual fixation on the text, however.
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