To protect their anonymity, some interview subjects are identified only by their initials.
AHM Archivo Histórico de Miraflores
AHZ Archivo Histórico de Zulia
DDQC U.S. Declassified Documents Quarterly Catalog
FRUS Foreign Relations of the United States
NARA National Archives and Records Administration
PRO Public Records Office
1. See for example Salazar Carrillo and West, Oil Development in Venezuela during the
20th Century.
2. Schuster, Petroleros, and Quintero, La cultura del petróleo.
3. Conniff, Black Labor on a White Canal.
4. Tinker Salas, Under the Shadow of the Eagles.
5. Aviva Chomsky, West Indian Workers and the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica,
1870–1940 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996).
6. Wright, Café con Leche.
7. Baptista, Breve reseña histórica de la industria del petróleo.
8. Marchand, Venezuela, travailleurs et villes du pétrole.
9. Prieto Soto, Luchas obreras por nuestro petróleo; Quintero, La cultura del petróleo;
Croes, El movimiento obrero venezolano.
10. Quintero, La antropología del petróleo.
11. The most salient exceptions are the works of Nehru Tennassee, Venezuela; Berg-
quist, Labor in Latin America; and Ellner, El sindicalismo en Venezuela.
12. Gilmore, Caudillism and Militarism in Venezuela; Kolb, Democracy and Dictatorship
in Venezuela; Burggraaff, The Venezuelan Armed Forces in Politics; Lombardi, The De-
cline and Abolition of Negro Slavery in Venezuela.
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