1 Maurice Merleau-­Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception (1945: 178). The other
classic and obvious text to cite here is Jon Berger’s Ways of Seeing who links
seeing to meaning, knowledge and belief systems through art and image pro-
duction (1972).
2 My methodology is informed by the decolonial turn and underpinned by a
vast literature of interdisciplinary study that emphasizes coloniality, which
includes Sylvia Wynter’s oeuvre “Unsettling the Coloniality of Being/Power/
Truth/Freedom” (2003) and, specifically on coloniality in the Américas,
her “1492: A New World View” (1995); Walter Mignolo’s Local Histories/
Global Designs; Emma Pérez’s The Decolonial Imaginary (1999); and Nelson
Maldonado-­Torres’s Against War: Views from the Underside of Modernity
(2008). In Mignolo’s key bibliography, “Modernity and Coloniality,” he cites
many origin points for the decolonial turn, including the 1955 Bandung Con-
ference, the intellectual production of Frantz Fanon (1952, 1961) and Ani-
bal Quijano’s classic essay “Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin
America” (2001).
3 For work that troubles the colonial politics of mastery at the intersections of
postcolonial thought, decolonial critique, and new theorizations of human-
isms see Julietta Singh’s Unthinking Mastery: Dehumanism and Decolonial En-
tanglements, 2017.
4 Since the 1980s the lack of national sovereignty that conditions these pro-
cesses has been challenged by Left political anti-­imperialist platforms. How-
ever, over the last decade Latin American nations have turned away from the
Washington Consensus, the system that exports a US-­centered hegemonic
economic model, only to become entangled within the Beijing Consensus a
few years later.
5 In Saskia Sassen’s analysis, these expulsions are connected to complex sys-
tems of legality, policy and accounting that enable governments to acquire
land in foreign territories (2016). Again, though she does not mention this,
such geographies are often Indigenous territories that require the expulsion
Native and rural peoples through the complexity of coordination that is ­of
advanced extractive or expulsive capitalism.
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