1. The papers from this conference are published in Cabrera, La Gloriosa ¿revo-
lución que no fue?
1. Hoover to Berle, September 11, 1943, Rec ord Group (rg) 59, 822.00B/69, nara.
2. fbi, History of the Special Intelligence Ser vice Division, 1.
3. Bethell and Roxborough, “Conclusion,” 328–32.
4. See, e.g., Blum, Killing Hope; Grandin, Empire’s Workshop; McPherson, The
5. James Reston, “Priorities Threatening Good- Neighbor Policy,” New York Times,
October 19, 1941, 103.
6. “Pan- American Labor Urged to Fight U.S. Trusts,” Daily Worker 22, no. 279
(November 21, 1945): 8.
7. Central Intelligence Agency, “Military Junta in Ec uador,” July 15, 1963, http://
www . foia . cia . gov / sites / default / files / document _ conversions / 89801 / DOC _ 0000437
007 . pdf.
8 . Good introductory studies of the Ec uadorian left include Páez, Los orígenes
de la izquierda ecuatoriana; Rodas, La izquierda ecuatoriana en el siglo XX. Páez ex-
amines an earlier period of anarchism in El anarquismo en el Ec uador, and Bonilla
analyzes the subsequent 1960s in En busca del pueblo perdido. Ibarra provides very
close and careful readings in his many works. In par ticular, see Ibarra, “Los idearios
de la izquierda comunista ecuatoriana.” See also the masterful studies by Coronel, “A
Revolution in Stages”; Ospina, “La aleación inestable.”
9. Becker, “La historia del movimiento indígena escrita a través de las páginas de
Ñucanchic Allpa.”
10. Po litical police and spy archives have provided rich sources of documenta-
tion elsewhere in Latin Amer i ca. In par ticular, see Weld, Paper Cadavers. Simi-
lar to what the research for this book discovered for Ec uador, the historian Aaron
Navarro notes that “the bureaucracies of the Central Intelligence Agency, Federal
Bureau of Investigation, Military Intelligence Division, Office of Strategic Ser vices,
and State Department produced voluminous and sometimes very cogent reports
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