1. The Constituent Assembly was a national public body that included in de pen-
dent representatives from ethnic, po litical, and religious minorities, as well
as reincorporated guerrilla fighters of the m-19, the People’s Liberation Army
epl, and the indigenous guerrilla group Quintin Lamé. Conspicuously absent
from the Constituent Assembly was the country’s most powerful guerrilla
group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (farc). Under previous
negotiations with the government of President Belisario Betancur, they had
signed a peace treaty that led to the foundation of the Unión Patriótica (up)
as a new po litical party in 1984. Yet in the following months and years many
of their leaders were killed by right- wing paramilitary groups linked to state
institutions. Given this experience, the farc chose not to join the Constitu-
ent Assembly pro cess of 1990.
2. Due to weak politicization and internal division within the Afro- Colombian
movement, no black representatives were elected to the Constituent Assem-
bly. It was up to a sympathetic indigenous Constituent member, who had
campaigned from a platform that addressed both indigenous and black inter-
ests in the Pacific region, and other like- minded representatives, to push for
the inclusion of at-55 (Agudelo 2004a; Arocha 1992; Fals Borda 1993; Paschel
2010; Wade 1995).
3. Other organizations include the Peasant Association of the San Juan River
acadesan (Asociación Campesina del Río San Juan), formed in 1990, and
the Peasant Associations of the Baudó River acaba (Asociación Campesina
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