1. Obama, ‘‘Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on the End of
Combat Operations in Iraq.’’
2. Butler, Frames of War.
3. Karen DeYoung and Greg Ja√e, ‘‘U.S. ‘Secret War’ Expands Globally as
Special Operations Forces Take Larger Role,’’ Washington Post, June 4, 2010.
For further discussion of these special operations forces, see the May 2011
pbs/Frontline special ‘‘Kill/Capture,’’ and the o≈cial summary by Gretchen
Gavett, ‘‘What Is the Secretive U.S. ‘Kill/Capture’ Campaign?’’ (http://www.pbs
4. The concept of the ‘‘zone of indistinction’’ is examined at length in Agam-
ben, Homo Sacer. We might also observe that in the Obama administration,
such ‘‘secret wars’’ and aggressive policing actions—including deportations of
undocumented people—are rapidly increasing, not decreasing, from numbers
posted by the previous Bush administration.
5. Said, Orientalism, xxi.
6. As Obama declared in his August 31, 2010, speech, ‘‘Throughout our
history, America has been willing to bear the burden of promoting liberty and
human dignity overseas, understanding its links to our own liberty and se-
curity’’ (‘‘Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on the End of
Combat Operations in Iraq’’).
7. United Nations High Commission on Refugees, ‘‘unhcr Global Report
2010’’ ( Today’s refugees in-
clude 4.7 million people fleeing wars—namely, the wars now being waged by
the United States—and almost 5 million Palestinians.
1. I enclose ‘‘America’’ in quotes in order to signal, first, that this shorthand
for the United States elides the contiguous Americas, including Central and
South Americas, and, second, that I hereafter mean ‘‘America’’ as the epistemo-
logical and ideological terrain for such erasure and U.S. exceptionalism.
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