All translations from Spanish are my own.
1. Venegas Lloveras, Marzo dos, 215.
2. Diego Manso, “Lucecita Benítez: ‘Yo no canto tonterías.’ ” Revista Ñ, June 14, 2013.
3. Foucault, The History of Sexuality, vol. 1.
4. Le partage du sensible, the distribution of the sensible, is Jacques Rancière’s well-
known concept. See Rancière, The Politics of Aesthetics.
5. Feminist scholars have considerably complicated this narrative. Farah Jasmine
Griﬃn (If You Can’t Be Free) on Billie Holiday, Judith Halberstam (Gaga Feminism) on
Lady Gaga, Gayle Wald (Shout, Sister, Shout!) on Sister Rosetta Tharpe, Laura Gutiér-
rez (Performing Mexicanidad) on Mexican cabaret stars, Deborah R. Vargas (Dissonant
Divas in Chicana Music) on the “dissonant divas” of the Texas border, Alexandra T.
Vazquez (Listening in Detail) on Cuban music, and Shane Vogel (The Scene of Harlem
Cabaret) on Harlem cabaret come to mind as examples of how the study of female stars
is at a much diﬀ er ent place than when I began this book a de cade ago. These scholars
debunk dominant narratives, in which female stars don’t have complex histories or put
a great deal of intelligence into their per formances.
6. Many works have discussed this prob lem of listening critically. See, for example,
Kun, Audiotopia, who takes his cue from his objects of study, in a move that is similar
to mine in this book: “Kafka’s dog performs the same kind of critical listening that Los
Tigres [del Norte] do, the same kind of listening that all of the subjects in this book
do — a critical listening that does not necessarily reject consensus or harmony, but
questions its default functionality as an apparatus of obligatory group belonging and
nationalist solidarity” (16). In this book, I privilege dissonance over harmony, follow-
ing Vargas, Dissonant Divas, but do not discourage and, when called for, document the
positive aﬀects that may be created by liberating “spaces of music” (Kun, Audiotopia,
22). I do, however, query any “sanctioned citizenship as women members” within na-
tionalist formations (Vargas, Dissonant Divas, ix).
7. “The individual in the collective traversed by ‘race’ — and there are no known
exceptions, as far as I can tell — is covered by it before language and its diﬀerential laws
take hold.” Spillers, “ ‘All the Things You Could Be by Now,’ ” 378.