1. Shapiro, ‘‘Portrait,’’ 252.
2. Shapiro, ‘‘Portrait,’’ 251. Though the discussions I cite here were published in 1945,
Norma and Normman represent the ‘‘normal American’’ from the era before the
Second World War. They incorporate statistics from 1910 through 1930s. Robert
Latou Dickinson designed the statues (in collaboration with the sculptor Abram
Belskie), and they are best understood in the context of his other graphic and
sculptural works. Dickinson made drawings of his patients throughout his years
of active practice (1882–1924), often including measurements of their pelvic anat-
omy in his case records. By the end of the 1920s he had condensed this informa-
tion into standardized images of ‘‘the’’ sexual body, ‘‘drawn to scale [and] based
upon an exhaustive study of actual measurements.’’ See Exner, The Sexual Side of
Marriage, 18. Dickinson turned to sculpture during his retirement in the 1930s, his
e√orts at three-dimensional representations culminating in the great popularity
of his terra-cotta display at the 1939 World’s Fair (letter from RLD to A. L. Rose,
June 18, 1942, box 3, folder 45, Robert Latou Dickinson Papers, Countway Library
of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts). Norma and Normman thus grew out of an
interest that spanned the years 1890–1940, the period of the current study.
The photograph of Normman published in Shapiro’s article wears a clay fig
leaf; the surviving statue, in the Cleveland Health Museum, does not.
3. Shapiro, ‘‘Portrait,’’ 255.
4. Frankenberg coined the terms ‘‘race-evasive’’ and ‘‘power-evasive’’ in White
Women, Race Matters, 14.
5. MacKenzie, Statistics in Britain 1865–1930, 11. The quotation is from Karl Pearson’s
laudatory biography of Galton, The Life, Letters, and Labors of Francis Galton. For a