acknowledgment of copyrights
Part 1. Forerunners
Candido, ‘‘Literature and Underdevelopment’’ From Antonio Candido: On Literature
and Society, translated, edited, and introduced by Howard S. Becker (Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995), 119–41. Originally published as ‘‘Sous-
developpement ´ et litterature ´ en Amerique ´ Latine,’’ in Cahiers d’Histoire Mondiale 4
(Paris: unesco, 1970), 618–40; and as ‘‘Literatura y subdesarrollo,’’ in America´
Latina en su literatura, coordinated by Cesar ´ Fernandez ´ Moreno (Mexico:´
unesco/Siglo XXI, 1972), 335–53; and reprinted in Antonio Candido, A educa-
cao ¸ ˜ pela noite e outros ensaios (Sao ˜ Paulo: Atica, 1987), 140–62.
Ribeiro, ‘‘Evolutionary Acceleration and Historical Incorporation,’’ ‘‘The Genuine
and the Spurious,’’ and ‘‘National Ethnic Typology’’ Three excerpts from The
Americas and Civilization, translated by Linton Lomas Barret and Marie McDavid
Barret (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1971), 34–39 and 71–89. Originally pub-
lished as Las Americas
´
y la civilizacion:
´
Proceso de formacion
´
y causas del desarrollo desi-
gual de los pueblos americanos (Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de America
´
Latina,
1969) and as Americas
´
e a Civilizacao ¸ ˜ (Rio de Janeiro: Civilizacao ¸ ˜ Brasileira, 1970).
Fernandez ´ Retamar, ‘‘Caliban: Notes Toward a Discussion of Culture in Our Amer-
ica’’ Excerpts from Caliban and Other Essays (Minneapolis: University of Minne-
sota Press, 1989), 3–16. These excerpts were translated by Lynn Garafola, David
Arthur McMurray, and Roberto Marquez. ´ This essay appeared for the first time
in Casa de las Americas ´ 68 (1971): 124–51.
Cornejo Polar, ‘‘Indigenismo and Heterogeneous Literatures: Their Double Sociocul-
tural Statute’’ This text was read at the seminar ‘‘Algunos enfoques de la crıtica´
literaria en Latinoamerica,’’ ´ which was organized by the Centro de Estudios
Latinoamericanos Romulo ´ Gallegos of Caracas, in March 1977. It is in part a
re-elaboration of ‘‘Para una interpretacion ´ de la novela indigenista,’’ Casa de las
Americas
´
100 (1977): 40–48. The essay was originally published as ‘‘El indi-
genismo y las literaturas heterogeneas:
´
su doble estatuto socio-cultural,’’ Revista
de Crıtica
´
Literaria Latinoamericana 7/8 (1978): 7–21.
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