notes
PrologUe: CommUnIsm 2.0?
1. Ironically, the streets were full of protesters during that summer as well. These
were so- called middle- class protestors who were ostensibly opposed to the re-
turn of communism, even as communist and anarchist graffiti started to pop
up around the capital. The snap elections held in May 2013 failed to produce a
clear winner and the Bulgarian Socialist Party (bsP) returned to power with the
assistance of the Movement for Rights and Freedom and Ataka. Since the bsP
is widely seen as the successor party of the old Bulgarian Communist Party, a
new group of protestors took to the streets to demand this new government’s
resignation after the bsP tried to appoint a well- known mafioso to a high gov-
ernment post. The bsP is a center-left party, and the anticommunist language
of the protest was a rhetorical device to discredit the government. The bsP has
very few left policies and is similar in character to all other existing political
parties in Bulgaria—riddled with corruption and beholden to shady economic
interests. Although there were important class differences between the Bul-
garians protesting in the winter against the electricity distribution monopo-
lies and the Bulgarians protesting in the summer and fall against the bsP, both
groups are fundamentally opposed to the failure of Bulgarian democracy and
the reality that all elected officials put the economic interests of business com-
munities above the interests of the Bulgarian electorate. The key difference be-
tween political parties in Bulgaria is which business interests are given priority
over the Bulgarian people. For center- right parties European business interests
are favored and for center- left parties, Russian and domestic Bulgarian busi-
ness interests are given priority. In both cases, it is the interests of citizens that
are trampled. Some Bulgarians, like those scribbling graffiti on the walls in
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