Bibliographic Note
Research for this book was primarily conducted in the Archivo General de Centro
América (agca) in Guatemala City. Other document collections, record sets, and
libraries consulted in Guatemala City include those of the Biblioteca Nacional, the
Museo Nacional de Historia of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, the
Instituto Nacional de Estadística, the Municipalidad de Guatemala, and the private
collection of Carlos Melgar Zamboni. Also cited are sources from the historical
archive of the Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamérica (cirma) in
Antigua, Guatemala, which also houses a Fototeca, or historic photographic archive.
In the United States, researchers may find many cited documents in the Latin Ameri-
can Library of Tulane University in New Orleans and in the Columbus Library of the
Pan-American Union in Washington.
Periodicals cited in the notes are listed below. Most may be found in the agca
hemeroteca (press repository), including sources such as school newspapers and
smaller-run magazines. Publications consulted for multi-year periods include the
Bulletin of the Pan-American Union (bpau); the Central America Report of Inforpress
Centroamericana (car); El Guatemalteco, the official newspaper of the Guatemalan
government; El Imparcial, the nation’s main newspaper through most of the twentieth
century; El Periódico; Prensa Libre; Revista Militar, the magazine of the Guatemalan
Army; and Siglo Veintiuno. Citations from El Imparcial only include a page number if
the article is not on the front page. The references marked ‘‘(clip)’’ come from the
indexed collection at cirma, which houses nearly all the resistance movement pub-
lications cited and is in general the best source for information on the popular
In citing agca documents, I have tried to facilitate the difficult work of any
researcher wishing to consult the original material. All the collections examined, with
the exception of the Ministerio de Fomento (see the list of abbreviations below), are
unindexed, and include many boxes, or legajos, with the same numbers and names.
The notes give the folio (if one exists), the legajo name, and the expediente, or
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