Adapting is not repeating, but replying.—Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution
This book has focused on the reality of time, its relevance to understanding
natural and cultural systems, its resistance to and otherness from spatial rep-
resentation, and its irreducibility to other terms and frames of explanation.
Against the prevailing impulses of mainstream philosophy and conventional
physics, I have utilized the work of misunderstood, wayward, or neglected
figures who have refused to see time as linear or countable, as the fourth di-
mension of a space-time continuum, as a neutral or passive medium for the
highlighting of objects.Instead, I have theorized time as active, positive, with
its own characteristics, features, and specific e√ects, which remain di≈cult to
ascertain and impossible to measure insofar as ‘‘empty time,’’ ‘‘pure time,’’
and ‘‘time in itself’’ are not cognizable by or comprehensible to us. Time’s ca-
pacity to hide within objects, through and as things in time, means that to the
extent that we focus on the nature of objects, we obscure the nature of tempo-
rality. Although the evidence of its e√ects appears only on and as these objects
in time, objects in their totality (through their various irreversible processes)
and living beings in their particularity (through their development, aging,
and mortality) attest in a fundamental manner to its irresistible force.
Knowledge and the Future
Although time is experienced in the various temporal rhythms and pro-
cesses that mark the living being, it cannot be reduced to subjective projec-
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