A Note on Sources
This study is based on material from libraries, museums, and archives in Ar-
gentina, Chile, Peru, Colombia, Mexico, Spain, Britain, and the United States.
Manuscript Material
I used manuscript material from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville,
the Archivo General de la Nación in Mexico City, the Archivo General de
la Nación in Buenos Aires, the Biblioteca Nacional de Perú, the Archivo Re-
gional del Cuzco, the Rare Books and Manuscripts room of the Nettie Lee
Benson Library at the University of Texas at Austin, and (via microfilm) the
Archivo General de la Nación in Bogotá.
Newspapers
The Archivo General de Indias possesses a number of independence-era jour-
nals from across Spanish America; I made particular use of their collection of
Chilean and Peruvian newspapers. I read later Chilean and Peruvian news-
papers in the Biblioteca Nacional de Chile and the Biblioteca Nacional de
Perú. Good collections of Mexican newspapers are held at the Hemeroteca
Nacional, located within the Mexican Biblioteca Nacional, and at the Archivo
General de la Nación, also in Mexico City; these also have some nineteenth-
century Guatemalan journals. The Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos
Aires has many nineteenth-century Argentine newspapers. I also read Mexi-
can and Argentine newspapers at the Nettie Lee Benson Library. In addition,
I consulted microfilms of nineteenth-century Colombian, Venezuelan, Peru-
vian, and Ecuadorian newspapers from the Colombian Archivo General de la
Nación’s Fondo Restrepo.
Other Printed Material
I consulted material from the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, the librar-
ies of Cambridge University and Warwick University, the Nettie Lee Benson
Library, the Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos Aires, the Biblioteca Na-
cional de Chile, the Peruvian Archivo General de la Nación, the Biblioteca Na-
cional de Perú, and the Biblioteca Nacional de México. I also read microfilmed
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