Acosta de Samper, Soledad, , 
Aguilar, Gabriel, 
Alamán, Lucas: affirms Mexico’s
Spanish heritage, –; historical
career of, , ,  n.; interest
of, in preconquest past, ,
, 
Alberdi, Juan Bautista, –, ,
–
Alda, Sonia, –, –
Alfonso XIII, , 
Alva Ixtlilxóchitl, Fernando de, 
Alvarado, Pedro de, , 
Alzate y Ramírez, José Antonio, 
Amauta, , –
Amunátegui, Miguel Luis, , ,
, 
Anáhuac, , , , 
Ancízar, Manuel, , 
Ancona, Eligio, 
Andermann, Jens, 
Anderson, Benedict, , –, ,
, 
Angulo, Vicente, 
Antelo, Nicomedes, 
Antiquities Junta, 
Araucana, –
Araucanians: ,  n.; in insur-
gent rhetoric, , –, ; in
postindependence writing, ,
–, . See also Mapuche
Archaeology: development of, as a
discipline, , –; influence of,
in Spanish America, , 
Architecture: “Aztec,” –;
“neoprehispanic,” , , 
Arequipa, 
Argentina: –, , –, –,
; centenary of independence,
–; cult of the próceres, –;
historical writing on, –, ,
, –, –; liberals in,
, –, –, ; museums
in, , , –; status of
nineteenth-century Amerindians
in, –, –, , ;
unification of, –. See also
Criollismo; Generation of 
Arriaga, Benigno, 
Art, –, –, –; Al-
legory of the Constitution of ,
–; Ancient Indigenous World,
–; Atahualpa’s Funeral,
–; Cahuide at the Defense of
Sacsahuaman, ; Deliberation
of the Senate of Tlaxcala, –;
Inca Frieze, , –; Our An-
cient Gods, , 
Art academies: Academy of Draw-
ing, ; Academy of San Carlos,
–; Escuela Nacional de Bellas
Artes, –
Aryan Races of Peru, 
Asociación Pro-Indígena, 
Atahualpa: in insurgent rhetoric,
–, –, –, , ;
postindependence status of, , ,
, –, , 
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