1 Black Panther Party, “What We Want– What We Believe,” October 1966, carton
18, folder 4a, Social Protest Collection, banc mss 86/157 c, Bancroft Library,
University of California, Berkeley; Black Lives Matter, accessed 24 May 2016,
http:// blacklivesmatter . com / .
1. seize the time
1 Donald Hausler, “Blacks in Oakland: 1852–1987,” Public History Room, Oakland
Public Library, Lakeshore Branch, 120.
2 Marilynn S. Johnson, The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World
War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 52.
3 Hausler, “Blacks in Oakland,” 122; Willie R. Collins, “Jazzing Up Seventh Street:
Musicians, Venues, and Their Social Implications,” in Sights and Sounds: Essays in
Cele bration of West Oakland, edited by Suzanne Stewart and Marty Praetzellis, the
Results of a Focused Research Program to Augment Cultural Resources Investiga-
tions for the i-880 Cypress Replacement Proj ect, Alameda County, Oakland
Public Library, 322.
4 Hausler, “Blacks in Oakland,” 99, 141.
5 Hausler, “Blacks in Oakland,” 142. See also Gretchen Lemke- Santangelo, Abiding
Courage: African American Mi grant Women and the East Bay Community (Chapel
Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); Gretchen Lemke- Santangelo,
“Deindustrialization, Urban Poverty, and African American Community Mo-
bilization in Oakland, 1945 through the 1990s,” in Seeking El Dorado: African
Americans in California, edited by Lawrence Brooks De Graaf, Kevin Mulroy,
and Quintard Taylor (Los Angeles: Autry Museum of Western Heritage, 2001),
6 Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Strug gle for Postwar Oakland
(Prince ton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003), 160–64.
7 Editorial, Flatlands, 12 March 1966.
8 Johnson, The Second Gold Rush, 215.
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