1. Taylor, Rural Life in Argentina, 38.
2. Wine and distilled liquor were important products during the colonial period but
declined with the crisis of independence, giving way to livestock trade across the
Andes. The late-nineteenth-century boom was a return to this precedent on a far
larger scale. On earlier wineries, see Lacoste, ‘‘The Rise and Secularization of Viti-
culture in Mendoza.’’
3. Sarmiento, Facundo. Sarmiento’s book was formally about the provincial strongman
Facundo Quiroga, but everyone understood it to be aimed at Rosas. Three start-
ing points in the vast literature on Sarmiento are Halperín Donghi, ed., Sarmi-
ento ; Goodrich, Facundo and the Construction of Argentine Culture ; and Svampa,
El dilema argentino. The best overview of the liberal project remains Halperín
Donghi, Una nación para el desierto argentino.
4. This process has been studied closely in Mendoza, and more summarily in San Juan.
For Mendoza, see the excellent Richard Jorba, Poder, economia y espacio en Men-
doza; Lacoste, El vino del inmigrante ; Supplee, ‘‘Provincial Elites and the Economic
Transformation of Mendoza, Argentina, 1880–1914’’; Fleming, Region vs. Nation.
For San Juan, see Avila and Gago, Proceso y mecanismo de formación de las clases
sociales y modos de producción, and the comparative essays in Richard Jorba, ed., La
región vitivinícola argentina.
5. Quoted in Arias and Peñaloza de Varese, Historia de San Juan, 389.
6. Marianetti, El racimo y su aventura.
7. Page, Perón, 3–6.
8. Perón quoted in Civita, ed., Perón, el hombre del destino, 1: 247.
9. Scalabrini Ortiz, Los ferrocarriles deben ser del pueblo argentino, 1; see also Luna, El
45, 396; Arturo Jauretche, quoted in Galasso, Jauretche y su época, 615.
10. One recent history used a photograph of Perón with victims as an emblematic
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