This book has been difficult to write for various reasons and has taken a
long time. Indeed, my debts are endless. Primarily, this study would have
been inconceivable without the love, warmth, and hospitality that I received in
Enayetpur. My sincere gratitude to the people in Enayetpur and particularly to
Moyna, Kajoli, Rohima, Rashida, and their families and other birangonas with
whom I worked. This is only a small attempt on my part to mirror their varied
experiences. My thanks to Khokon Hossein for ably helping me as a research
The Richard Carley Hunt Fellowship of the Wenner Gren Foundation for
Anthropological Research, New York, helped me to complete this book. I am
also thankful for the award of the Felix Scholarship for funding my disserta-
tion from which this book draws. Fieldwork was supported by the Central
Research Fund of the University of London, the Emslie Horniman Scholar-
ship from the Royal Anthropological Institute, and the soas (School of
Oriental and African Studies, University of London) Additional Fieldwork
Fund. Funding from Durham University has also been significant for the book.
I am grateful to Naibuddin Ahmed, Roshid Talukdar, Maleka Khan, Swapan
Parekh, abp Autograph, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Jill (Durrance) Sabella,
Joanna Kirkpatrick, Geraldine Forbes, and Paul Greenough for granting
permission to use their photographs and other documents from their per-
sonal archives. Sadly, Naibuddin Ahmed and Roshid Talukdar died in 2009
and 2011, respectively.
ac know ledg ments
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