preface. “A Lot of History, a Severe History”
1 The references to the war as Ekattor (1971), Muktijuddho (Bangladesh Liberation
War), Shadhinotar Juddho (War of In de pendence), gondogoler bochor (year of
chaos), civil war, and the third Indo- Pakistani war highlight various ideological
and geopo liti cal connotations.
2 Chapter 8 provides a detailed discussion of this photograph with Naibuddin
3 See http:// www . komola . co . uk / #!current2 / c1bpu.
4 All the names of birangonas and places have been anonymized.
5 In Bangladesh the events of 1971 are considered to be genocide, taking into ac-
count mass killings; impositions on culture, language, and religion; and national
feelings during 1971.
introduction. “The Looking- Glass Border”
1 Two hundred Muslim women were raped in the communal violence in Gujarat in
February 2002 (Communalism Combat 2002).
2 The Shikha Chironton was an attempt to acknowledge the role of common people
in Muktijuddho, in contrast to the militaristic valorization of the bnp, the opposi-
3 A long tunic worn over narrow- ankled pajamas.
4 A muktijoddha having a heart operation in New York refused to hear any religious
sermons from a Pakistani hujoor (priest) before his operation and instead settled
for prayers from a Christian priest.
5 Das (2006); A. Ghosh (2008); and Paxton (1999) for rumor and memory.