a medias sharecropping
acción a water share, typically five or six hours in the valley
agua sucia runo√, or ‘‘dirty’’ water
aguas broncas ravine water
atltepeame (Nahuatl) a twelve-hour share of the flow from
the Atzompa spring
atole a warm, traditional cornmeal-based beverage
avilacamachistas supporters of Governor Ávila Camacho in the 1930s
ayuntamiento municipal government or mayor’s o≈ce
bajadas wells used to descend into underground canals (galerías)
bandoleros bandits
barranca ravine
barrio neighborhood
bienes comunales communal land
bracero temporary agricultural worker under the Bracero program
established by the United States (1942–64)
bulto bushel
cabecera head town or county capital
cacicazgo region ruled by a cacique
cacique indigenous leader or political leader
cajón a measure of grain equivalent to 4 kilograms; also a box
caliche hardpan or hardened deposit of calcium carbonate
campesino peasant
chichiltzi (Nahuatl) a criollo variety of red maize from the southern valley
chicuase (Nahuatl) a criollo variety of white maize with
a six-month growing cycle
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