Notes to Introduction
1. Perhaps the definition of political culture that has most influenced me is that of
Keith Baker. See Baker, introduction to The Political Culture of the Old Regime, vol. 1
of The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture (New York:
Pergamon Press, 1987), xii.
2. Charles Tilly, ‘‘Social Movements and National Politics,’’ in Statemaking and
Social Movements: Essays in History and Theory, edited by Charles Bright and Susan
Harding (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984), 307–9.
3. Historians based in Europe have included Antonio Annino, Marco Bellingeri,
Marie-Danielle Demélas, Will Fowler, Pilar González Bernaldo, François-Xavier
Guerra, and Annick Lempérière. Those based in North America include Timothy
Anna, Sarah Chambers, Arlene Díaz, Michael Ducey, Peter Guardino, Cecilia Mén-
dez, Vincent Peloso, Jaime Rodríguez, Mark Thurner, Victor Uribe-Uran, Charles
Walker, and Richard Warren. Those based in Latin America include Alfredo Avila,
Brian Connaughton, Antonio Escobar Ohmstede, Virginia Guedea, Alicia Her-
nández Chávez, Marco Antonio Landavazo, Carole Leal Curiel, Jorge Myers, Victor
Peralta Ruíz, José Antonio Serrano Ortega, and Torcuato Di Tella. See their works
in the bibliography.
4. François-Xavier Guerra was the most influential historian to make this basic
argument. See, for instance, Guerra, Modernidad e independencias: Ensayos sobre las
revoluciones hispánicas (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1993), especially
1, 92, 108, 231.
5. On the emergence of a liberal tradition, see Jaime Rodríguez, The Independence
of Spanish America (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 243–46. An-
tonio Annino has o√ered the interesting argument that the transition was in fact too
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