Although researching and writing a work of history can sometimes be a
lonely business, no person really completes such a work alone. This book,
like others of its kind, is the product of a wide variety of institutions
and individuals who supported the research, thinking, and writing that it
Institutions provided the financial resources that are crucial for such
an endeavor. Much of the research was funded by an Advanced Research
Grant from the Social Sciences Research Council and the American Coun-
cil of Learned Societies. A National Endowment for the Humanities Fel-
lowship allowed me time to complete the bulk of the writing. Indiana
University contributed on di√erent occasions two Summer Faculty Fellow-
ships, two Research Leave Supplements, and a Grant-in-Aid of Research.
Two di√erent research assistants, Timothy Schmitz in Bloomington and
David Carbajal López in Mexico, lent very timely help that allowed me to
profitably use sources I might otherwise have been unable to fully explore.
One of the great pleasures of this project was the opportunity to spend
long periods of time working in Oaxaca, with its exceptionally pleasant
ambiance and superb archives. Thus I am particularly indebted to my friend
and fellow historian of Oaxaca, Jeremy Baskes, who originally suggested
that I locate this project there and provided me with my first knowledge of
key Oaxacan archives.
During my many stays in Oaxaca a number of the region’s historians and
ethnohistorians, including Carlos Sánchez Silva, Maria de los Angeles Ro-
mero Frizzi, Daniela Tra√ano, Francisco José Ruiz Cervantes, Luis Cas-