Unless otherwise cited, English translations of original Portuguese works
are my own.
1 Morais Filho, Serenatas e seraus 1: introduction; Barbosa, ‘‘A Ternura Bra-
sileira,’’ ‘‘Zabumba,’’ and ‘‘A Portugueza Abrazileirada,’’ in A Viola de Loreno,
14–16, 225–30, 257, 298–99.
2 Dauril Alden, Royal Government in Colonial Brazil, 70 n.32; ‘‘Representação
dos presos que haviam vindo de Lisboa e Porto como degredados para
Moçambique, Angola, e outras partes, pedindo a s.a.r. lhes concedesse a
graça de mandar sentar praça nos regimentos da linha onde muitas deles já
haviam servido,’’ Rio, 1821, bnr-smor, Exército, pa. II-34, 25, 16; Varn-
hagen, ‘‘Biografia de Domingos Caldas Barbosa,’’ 49.
3 Morais Filho, Serenatas e seraus, 1:xii–xiv.
4 Matos, A poesia popular na república das letras, 50–3; Anderson, Imagined
Communities; Sommer, Foundational Fictions.
5 Romero, Cantos populares do Brasil, introduction.
6 Lima Barreto’s tragic nationalist, Policarpo, stated, ‘‘It is prejudiced to sup-
pose that every man who plays the guitar is a social outcast. . . . We are the
ones who abandoned this genre, but it was honored in Lisbon in the pre-
vious century with Father [Domingos] Caldas who had an audience of
nobility.’’ Policarpo and his neighbor, a general, consult a Brazilian folklore
scholar to ‘‘develop the cult of traditions, [and] maintain them always alive
in memory and custom.’’ Lima Barreto, Triste fim do Policarpo Quaresma, 12,
22. As Hermano Vianna demonstrates, however, even though many mem-
bers of the elite developed a taste for erudite European music, they con-
tinued to be exposed to popular Brazilian musical forms at social gatherings
(The Mystery of Samba, chapter 3).
7 Belmondy, ‘‘O nosso soldado,’’ O Alvorada, March 1878, 3, in bnr-smor.
8 Hebe Maria Mattos de Castro Das cores do silêncio, 31–40; Fraga Filho, Men-
digos, moleques, e vadios, 165–67; Gilmore, Manhood in the Making.
9 Chiavenato, Genocídio Americano; Menezes, Guerra do Paraguai.
10 Kraay, ‘‘Shelter of the Uniform,’’ 637–57.
11 Prado Junior, Colonial Background of Modern Brazil, 361–85.