Glossary of Portuguese Terms
Aﬁlhadagem. Protection granted a godson, broadly used to describe clientelism.
Anspeçada. A praça rank between private and corporal.
Assentamento. A praça’s career record.
Assentar praça. To become an active-duty army praça.
Aquilombado. Resident of a runaway-slave community (quilombo).
Caboclo(a). The color and appearance of person with a mixture of Indian and
white blood. It can also imply hinterland origins.
Caçada humana. Literally, ‘‘manhunts.’’ Frequently used to describe army im-
Cachaça. Brandy made from sugarcane.
Cafuzo/a. An individual of mixed Indian and African heritage.
Camarada. Soldier assigned to perform personal services for an o≈cer, akin to a
Capitão(aes) do Mato. Bounty hunter who tracked down runaway slaves for a
Capoeira. A uniquely Afro-Brazilian martial art, dance, and musical form devel-
oped by slaves and maroons. By the nineteenth century, capoeira had devel-
oped into distinct countercultural organizations formed by slaves and
freemen in urban centers for mutual protection and support. Also a practi-
cioner of capoeira.
Carioca. Native of Rio de Janeiro.
Casaca. (frock coat) A denigrating term used by the army to describe the civil-
ian political elite.
Casado(a). A married person.
Chibata. Brutal corporal punishment applied to navy praças.
Conciliação. A period of cooperation, literally ‘‘conciliation,’’ between Liberal
and Conservative party politicians in the mid-nineteenth century.
Conselho de Guerra. Court-martial.