prologue
1. Speech of Maximilian at Veracruz, 28 May 1864, reprinted as a broadside, de
Villar y Bocanegra, El prefecto in ahmrg-fbpcm, #510. All translations are
mine, unless otherwise noted.
2. New York Times, 16 July 1867; at least this is the account of the execution by
Maximilian’s valet, published in Le Mémorial Diplomatique (Paris), 10 October
1867, translated by Anna Swinbourne, in Elderfield, Manet and the Execution of
Maximilian, 191. See also Quirarte, Historiografía sobre el imperio de Maximiliano.
3. Arias, Reseña histórica de la formación y operaciones del cuerpo de Ejército del Norte,
267, 718–19.
4. Diario de la Marina, 21 July 1867.
5. Elderfield, Manet and the Execution of Maximilian, 11, 47, 86, 120.
6. F. Bilbao, “El evangelio americano,” 419.
7. F. Bilbao, “El evangelio americano,” 425.
8. Muñiz, Protesta, broadside in ahmrg-fii, #530.
9. D. Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations; Huntington, “Political Modern-
ization.”
introduction. american republican modernity
1. Hilda Sabato, in an excellent essay, has also argued that Spanish Americans
thought republicanism put them at the center of modernity (“La reacción
Notes
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