N o t e s
1. But the worse thing was / that in all their / sociological / anthropological / psy-
chological / and historical / heaps and piles of bogus bullshit / Our sister—the
Pachuca—of / equal suffering / that dear little sister / who also bore the brunt /
on her entire face / remained in their textbooks / ANONYMOUS. raúlsalinas,
Un Trip through the Mind Jail y Otras Excursions, 106; my translation.
2. Regarding the subgenre of “pachuco poetry,” see Zamora, “Mythopoeia of
Chicano Poetry.” In everyday speech, a “homeboy” or “homegirl” (or “homie”)
is a friend or acquaintance, usually from a particular neighborhood. In this
book, “homeboy” and “homegirl” may refer to young, poor, or working-class
urban Latinas and Latinos in the United States. They may also refer to gang
members more speciﬁcally.
3. “ ‘Zoot suit’ murder case” is from “Jury’s Gang-Case Verdict Disproves ‘Perse-
cution,’ ” Los Angeles Times, January 14, 1943.
4. I base my description of the zoot suit as worn by young Mexican American
women in the 1940s on a number of contemporary sources, including photo-
graphs, as well as on interviews I conducted with Mexican American women
who either wore zoot suits or who came of age when the zoot suit was popular
among young Mexican Americans. I discuss these interviews in more detail
in chapter 1.
5. My broad conceptualization of the state is indebted to Louis Althusser’s con-
cepts of the isa and rsa. According to Althusser, both ideological and repres-
sive state apparatuses (isas and rsas respectively) constitute the state. isas
include the press, churches, schools, trade unions, political parties, and the
arts. Where isas manufacture and maintain state power via ideology, rsas,
such as the military and police, do so via direct violence. See Althusser, “Ide-
ology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards an Investigation).” I
provide a more detailed deﬁnition of the state in note 6.
6. By “state,” I refer to institutions that work together in articulating nation (a
politically organized body) and nationalist identity, such as the military, gov-
ernment (local, regional, and national), law enforcement agencies, schools,
and newspapers. However, I do not conflate “state” and “nation,” as some na-
tionalisms—for example, what David Lloyd calls “insurgent nationalisms”—