1. I use the designation (post-1968) ethnic studies to distinguish this variety of ethnic
studies from the earlier ethnic studies of the Chicago school of sociology, as I explain
later in this introduction.
2. I subscribe to this nongendered form of Latina/o that implicates race, gender, sexu-
ality, class, and nation and their intersections.
1. “A Non-White Struggle toward New Humanism, Consciousness.”
2. “An Interview with Pat Sumi,” 259.
3. Hare, “The Battle for Black Studies,” 33, 47.
4. Ferreira, “From College Readiness to Ready for Revolution!”
5. Peninsula Observer, January 20–27, 1969, cited in Ferreira, “From College Readiness
to Ready for Revolution!,” 123.
6. Hare, “The Battle for Black Studies,” 33–34.
7. Mandela, No Easy Walk to Freedom, 163, 189.
8. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 35–36, 311, 315.
9. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 314.
10. Quoted in Kahin, The Asian-African Conference.
11. While revolutionary in the sense described, decolonization failed to end neocolo-
nialism and European and US hegemony, as I explain in chapter 2.
12. The language of this statement draws heavily from the Black Students Union’s prin-
ciples written in late 1966 or early 1967. See Orrick, Shut It Down!, 108–9. The most
comprehensive published account of the San Francisco State strike is Orrick, Shut It
Down! See also eyewitness accounts by two San Francisco State students, Bill Barlow
and Peter Shapiro, a San Francisco State faculty member, Robert Chrisman, and two
University of California, Davis sociologists, James McEvoy and Abraham Miller, in
McEvoy and Miller, Black Power and Student Rebellion, 12–31, 222–32, 277–97.