I would like to express my gratitude for the following postdoctoral research
grants that made this project possible: the Fulbright Faculty Research Abroad
program and the Fulbright-Hays Research/Lecturer program, the Social Sci-
ence Research Council, and the Rockefeller Foundation Humanities Program.
In addition, I have benefited from Summer Faculty fellowships from Indiana
University. I would also like to thank the staff, fellows, and faculty of the
Institute of Latin American Studies of the University of Texas, Austin, for their
hospitality during my tenure as a postdoctoral fellow in
I profited
greatly from the stimulating intellectual climate at the institute. Similarly I am
extremely thankful to the Centro de Investigaciones Historicas de Centro-
america and to its director Victor Hugo Acuna for treating me so graciously
during my semester there as a Fulbright fellow in
I would also like to thank John French and Daniel James, the organizers,
and the participants of the Latin American Labor History conferences (1988
The perspicacious commentaries of Emilia Viotti da Costa, Michael
Jimenez, and Peter Winn were particularly useful to me.
lowe a profound debt of gratitude to Sra. Aurora Martinez, witlIout whose
generous help I never would have been able to accomplish this project. She
kindly allowed me to consult the family archive in her home, permission she
had not previously granted to anyone.
The leadership groups of the Comunidades lndigenas of Sutiaba, Jinotega,
and Matagalpa
lent their cooperation to this project. I am thank-
ful for their assistance and hope this research will be of some use in tlIeir
struggles. I am also grateful to the following Central American institutions
that aided this project: the Hermeoteca Nacional (especially Mundo), the
Archivo Nacional de Nicaragua and its director, Alfredo Gonzalez; the In-
stituto de Historia de Nicaragua and its energetic director, Margarita Vannini;
the lnstituto Historico Centroamericano (Universidad Centroamericana); the
Consejo Regional de Pueblos Indigenas (especially to mi compadre Oscar
Rojas Flores); and the mayoral offices of Boa co and Camoapa (especially Jorge
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