N O T E S
1 This discourse has roots in early twentieth- century visions of northeast Asian re-
gionalisms, by Japan, China, and even Korea, which were designed to resist West-
ern imperialism and often to facilitate sub- imperialisms, most notoriously in the
Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere in the days of Japa nese empire building.
More recently, a new cluster of conceptualizations of Asianisms have emerged,
meeting a need to provide explanation for the continuous domestic economic
growth in East Asia’s four Newly Industrializing Countries (nics)—South Korea,
Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore— which were modeled after Japan, and to give
definition to an Asian identity. These discourses were subsequently destabilized in
the wake of the financial crisis that swept Asia in 1997 and 1998. In addition, the
rise of phenomena such as hallyu called into question the undiferentiated status
of postcolonial nations within the region as South Korea gained momentum as a
neo- imperialist and sub- imperialist cultural power. Most recently, questions of
Asian regionalization have been coupled with the analy sis of globalization. Much
critical analy sis of hallyu, as a broader category, has been based, on the one hand,
on ideas of globalization and regionalization, as articulated by Koichi Iwabuchi and
others, and, on the other, cultural nationalism, neoliberalism, and postcolonial-
ism, as illustrated most notably by Cho Hae- joang. The former underscores the
denationalization of cultural products as the dominant under lying success factor,
while the latter identifies cultural essentialism as shared across the discourses
variably rooted in national pride, national marketization, and national culture,
respectively. Following from such work has been the advancement of ideas of lo-
calization, flows, and cultural hybridity, drawing on Homi K. Bhabha’s notions of
hybridity and “third space,” for instance, to critique notions of homogenization and
cultural reductionism. See Iwabuchi, Recentering Globalization; Hae- joang Cho,
“Reading the ‘Korean Wave’ as a Sign of Global Shift,” 148–49; and Bhabha, The
Location of Culture.
2 Shaviro, Post- Cinematic Aﬀect, 2–10.
3 MacCannell, The Tourist.
4 Berlant, “Intuitionists,” 845.
5 Agamben, What Is an Apparatus?, 36.
6 Hae-joang Cho, “Reading the ‘Korean Wave’ as a Sign of Global Shift.”