NOTES
introduction
1. Lizarraga, 86. Translations from the Spanish are by the author unless
noted.
2. ‘‘Relación muy particular del cerro y minas de Potosí y de su calidad y
labores,porNicolasdelBenino,dirigidaadonFranciscodeToledo,Virreydel
Perú, en 1573,’’ 366.
3. Ocaña, 187–88.
4. Ibid., 201.
5. Pedro Cieza de León, Primera parte de la crónica del Perú, vol. 26 of
Biblioteca de Autores Españoles (Madrid: Atlas, 1947), 449; cited by Murra,
‘‘Aymara Lords and Their European Agents at Potosí,’’ 232.
6. ‘‘Descripción de laVilla y minas de Potosí,’’ 380.
7. To date, the late colonial era dominates studies on petty trade, but two
recent studies promise to help configure our understanding of urban trade in
comparativeperspective.SeeGauderman,esp.chap.5,aswellasGarafalo.For
the republican era, historian Marie Francois analyzes the role of petty shop-
keepers in credit transactions in nineteenth-century Mexico City, and Gina
Hames studies the role of chola chicha vendors in Bolivian national identity.
8. I use the terms urban trade, petty trade, and trade interchangeably in the
text.Toclarifytheparametersofthestudy, petty trade isdefinedhereasthelocal
buying and selling of foodstuffs, alcohol, and some clothing in modest pulpe-
rías (general stores), bakeries, chicherías (taverns), and outdoor stalls or mar-
kets. Long-distance traders, artisans like carpenters or silversmiths, and high-
end merchants are not the main focus here. One of the first studies devoted
exclusively to petty trade was Petty Capitalism in Spanish America (1987), Jay
Kinsbruner’sanalysisofpettycapitalisminlatecolonialurbanareas.Foranaly-
sis of the role of grocers in urban society in late colonial Mexico, see Martin.
My work does not focus on the practices of middling and elite Spanish mer-
chants,asubjectaptlyexploredforArgentinabySusanMigdenSocolow(The
Merchants of Buenos Aires), and for Mexico by Louisa Schell Hoberman and
John Kicza.
9. Capoche, 160–61.
10. Early studies by Gwendolin Cobb (‘‘Supplyand Transportation for the
PotosíMines,1545–1640’’)andLewisHanke(The Imperial City of Potosí )con-
firmed the value of researching Potosí’s intriguing colonial era, though they
did not necessarilychallenge the portrayal of the Indian as victim.
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