Throughout this text translation refers to the action of transferring a text
from one language into another. At the same time I use translation in a
figurative sense to describe the transformation, alteration, and renovation
that occurs in the process of rendering the cultural and historical events of
a particular time—the U.S. Gilded Age—for Spanish-language readers of a
distinct cultural, i.e., non-Anglo, background.
Alberto, Informe contra mi mismo, 111. Throughout this book, all transla-
tions from Spanish are mine, unless otherwise indicated.
Flaubert, Bouvard and Pécechet, 249; Anderson, Imagined Communities, 17;
Benjamin, ‘‘On the Concept of History,’’ sec. 7 (1940); Benjamin, Walter
Benjamin, 4:392.
Alberto, Informe contra mi mismo, 107.
Ibid., 211; see also Cheah, ‘‘Given Culture.’’
Martí, ‘‘A Manuel Mercado, April 12, 1885,’’ Epistolario, 1:299. The term
‘‘Latino’’ commonly refers to a set of practices that define the culture of
Latin Americans and of people of Latin American descent living in the
United States, as set out by Aparicio, ‘‘Latino Cultural Studies,’’ 3–31, and
Flores, ‘‘Latino Studies,’’ 191–205. ‘‘Latin America’’ begins to refer to a New
World geographical and cultural formation in 1856, when the Paris-based
Colombian intellectual and political leader José María Torres Caicedo re-
fers to ‘‘two Americas’’—Latin or South America and ‘‘Saxon’’ or North
America—in poetry and programmatic documents. According to
Uruguayan philosopher Arturo Ardao, Torres Caicedo adapted the term
from the French statesman Michel de Chevalier’s notion of a ‘‘Latin race,’’
which he proposed in 1836 to describe France’s tutelary role in the New
World, in opposition to the threatening spread of the ‘‘Saxon race’’ over the
globe. Torres Caicedo and the Chilean Francisco Bilbao initiated the con-
cept of a Union of Latin American states in response the aggressions of the
United States against Mexico in 1845–48 and in particular against William
Walker’s U.S.-endorsed aggression against Nicaragua in 1855–56. See Ar-
dao, Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América Latina.
Rojas, ‘‘Otro gallo cantaría,’’ 13.
As Kadir notes, in ‘‘Defending America against Its Devotees,’’ 30, students
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