1. Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the organization that over-
sees the men’s and women’s fifa World Cup.
2. The ‘‘mad cow’’ protests are also referred to as the Candlelight Vigils of 2008.
The protests began in April and involved over one hundred days of demonstrations
against terms of U.S.–South Korean trade, especially around the import of beef and
the rapid onslaught of conservative and corporate-friendly policy transformations
enacted by President Lee Myung Bak. See Conclusion.
3. In South Korea, liberalization reforms were installed at an accelerated rate in the
aftermath of the Asian ﬁnancial crisis of 1997 and the subsequent International
Monetary Fund bailout in 1998. In chapter 4, I point out that the immense popularity
of Se Ri Pak was directly related to the timing of her rookie year success, which
coincided with the Asian ﬁnancial crisis.
4. Also spelled Hanryu, the Korean (Han) Wave (ryu). Hallyu, as used here, is
transliterated using the McCune-Reischauer system. See Cho Han et al. 2003.
5. Rather than regarding globalization as simply economic liberalization, Kim
Young Sam’s government ‘‘decided to keep, not translate, the Korean word segyehwa,
in its romanized form, as the o≈cial name for its globalization drive’’ (S. Kim 2000a,
2). Kim’s decision to emphasize the Korean word demonstrated the nationalist and
state-driven nature of South Korea’s globalization policies.
6. Korean Japanese are usually divided into two di√erent groups: those connected
to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and those connected to
the Republic of Korea (South Korea). This explains the varying relationships between
the South Korean government and Korean populations in Japan (Ryang 2000).
7. For more extensive discussions about the place of mass media in generating
deterritorialized national communities, see Shohat and Stam (1994) and Ang (1997).