1. ‘‘The Four Faces of Maria Clara,’’ Wedding Essentials, 164–65; Lazam, ‘‘In Maria
Clara’s Wardrobe,’’ 163.
2. My spelling of this icon’s name varies from Rizal’s original Spanish orthogra-
phy (María Clara). I use the Anglicized ‘‘Maria Clara’’ here and throughout the book to
indicate her transformation in the twentieth century. For a more detailed discussion,
see chapter 2.
3. Rizal, Noli Me Tangere, 30.
4. My use of the word intimacies in this context draws on Lowe, ‘‘The Intimacies of
Four Continents,’’ in Stoler, Haunted by Empire, 191–212.
5. The U.S. occupation was interrupted by the outbreak of the Paciﬁc War in the
Philippines in 1941 and the Japanese occupation.
6. In using ‘‘Philippine literature in English,’’ I follow current terminology used by
scholars in the Philippines.
7. For examples, see DeLoughrey, Routes and Roots; Diaz and Kauanui, ‘‘Native
Paciﬁc Cultural Studies on the Edge’’; Edwards, The Practice of Diaspora; Gilroy, The Black
Atlantic; Guterl, American Mediterranean; Hau’ofa, We Are the Ocean; Huang, Transpaciﬁc
Imaginations; Isaac, American Tropics; Palumbo-Liu, Asian/American; Rowe, Literary Culture
and U.S. Imperialism; Skwiot, The Purposes of Paradise; Stephens, Black Empire; Stillman,
‘‘Paciﬁc-ing Asian Paciﬁc American History’’; Sumida, And the View from the Shore; and
Wilson, Reimagining the American Paciﬁc.
8. Manlapaz, Filipino Women Writers, 3.
9. Kaplan and Pease, Cultures of United States Imperialism. This collection was influ-
ential in drawing attention to U.S. empire studies.
10. Christina Klein has suggested that American studies would do well to expand
its geographic boundaries. See Klein, ‘‘Why American Studies Needs to Think about
Korean Cinema.’’ Some notable exceptions to the above generalization include studies