Someone who believes that the establishment or maintenance of community is
the chief goal of social and political action.
A body of meaning considered as a social and cultural practice within one or more
institutional settings. Different discourses are distinguished from each other by their internal
structure, their themes, and the social settings within which they occur.
A term used to refer to the conscious lived experience of the body, based on the
philosophical view that human experience cannot be properly understood in terms of the activity
of consciousness or of thinking abstracted from the body.
An ethical doctrine, originating in antiquity, that focuses on the importance of
friendship in coping with disease or in recuperating from injury.
The theory of knowledge.
A decentralized and fragmented form of patrimonial rule associated particularly with the
European Middle Ages.
The fear that the use of sex-selection techniques will result in the systematic elimina-
tion of female embryos.
The theory of interpretation. The term is used in different
but often refers to
the study of the interpretation of particular texts or, more generally, of configurations of signs able
to be considered as texts. Such configurations might include, for example, the experience, context,
and meaning of illness.
A concept introduced by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein to emphasize the
manner in which language and action interpret each other reciprocally. Originally intended to refer
to small-scale languages within special spheres, it was expanded to cover parts of existing languages
in which they are employed in discourse.
phenomenology, the lived world, or the world of immediate experience.
The study of the nature of ethical thinking and the structure of ethical propositions.
The field of moral action within the lifeworld. Microethical events are imbedded in
relationships, are determined by contingent local circumstances, and need not be formulated in the
terms of conventional moral discourse.
That part of ethics in which general statements are made about right or desirable