co Colonial Offi ce Series of the pro
ewi Eastern West Indies Province of Moravian Church Missionary
llh Papers Relating to the Estates of Langford Lovell Hodge,
Bodleian Library, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
mca Moravian Church Archives, Bethlehem, PA, United States
naab National Archives of Antigua and Barbuda, St. John’s, Antigua
pro British Public Record Offi ce, Kew, London, UK
wmmspwip Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society Papers, West Indies
Province, School of Oriental and African Studies Library,
London, UK
1. Mrs. Lanaghan (also known as Mrs. Flannigan), Antigua and the Antiguans: A Full
Account of the Colony and Its Inhabitants from the Time of the Caribs to the Present Day, 2 vols.
(London: Saunders & Otley, 1844), vol. 2, 43–44.
2. Ibid., 44.
3. Ibid., 21.
4. Ibid., 43; parenthetical insertion is Lanaghan’s.
5. Most histories of abolition in the Ca rib bean and the Atlantic World are ex-
pressly concerned with the changes in labor and po liti cal culture that followed. Ear-
lier studies oft en center on those managing the emancipation pro cess rather than
those who were being emancipated. See Douglas Hall, Five of the Leewards, 1834–1870:
The Major Problems of the Postemancipation Period in Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat, Nevis and
St. Kitts (St. Laurence, Barbados: Ca rib bean Universities Press, 1971); William Green,
British Slave Emancipation: The Sugar Colonies and the Great Experiment, 1830–1865 (Oxford,
UK: Clarendon Press, 1976); Eric Foner, Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy
(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1983); Robin Blackburn, The Over-
throw of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 (London: Verso, 1988). More recent studies tend
to exhibit greater interest in freedpeople’s experiences: Frederick Cooper, Thomas
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