Altar de Cruz: Altar of the Cross, a religious ritual performed in the eastern regions
of Cuba by practitioners of cruzados—crosses or mixes of Catholicism, Santería,
and Spiritism. Los cruzados and Altar of the Cross rituals are considered ‘‘folk
religion.’’ See Alumbrados.
Alumbrados: Literally ‘‘illuminations.’’ Another name for Altar of the Cross rituals,
the term is used in the Escambray region.
Los Años Gris: The Gray Years, also known as ‘‘The Dark Years’’ and sometimes
Cuba’s ‘‘Cultural Revolution’’ (when compared to China). Spanning the years
from approximately 1968 to 1976, the Gray Years was a period of heightened
censorship and control over artistic expression. See umap camps.
area of consumption: Areas where goods and services were sold in divisas, or hard
currency: U.S. dollars until 2004, ‘‘convertibles’’ (convertible Cuban currency)
batalla: Battle or struggle.
Battle of Ideas: One of Fidel Castro’s most recent campaigns to end corruption.
‘‘Social workers’’ were recruited to monitor and report back on any potential
corrupt behavior in divisa industries, such as fuel sales and shopping stores, and
in other services sold in hard currency. Critics likened the movement to China’s
Red Guard. However, many Cuban people saw it as a positive and necessary
bodega: State-run store where rationed goods were distributed, sold in Cuban
pesos or rationed by libreta.
campesino: Farmer. In Cuba campesino referred broadly to someone who lived in
the rural areas and works on or lives o√ the land. The deﬁnition of the modern
Cuban campesino was discussed at length by the theater group in Cumanayagua
(Teatro de los Elementos). Campesinos in post-1959 Cuba were not peasants, and
some scholars argued that they never were, even before the Revolution. Sidney
Mintz (1985), for example, distinguishes between peasant and rural proletariat in
prerevolutionary Cuba. (See also nuevo campesino.)
el campo: The countryside or the rural areas.
Carné de Identidad: Cuban identity card.
caserío: Small scattered groupings of campesino dwellings (bohíos, or rural huts).