Notes
introduction
1 Mifamilia production member, interview by the author, July 1997. All of the Spanish
to English translations of newspaper and magazine articles, scripts, and interviews
were done by the author. Some of the information presented in this book comes
from personal and phone interviews with Puerto Rican and Cuban media profes-
sionals, family members of specific performers or scriptwriters, technical staff, and
other creative people. At times, I exclude the names and professional affiliations of
the interviewees, especially when dealing with the delicate topic of racism.
2 Hilario de León, ‘‘Buscan revivir personaje de Diplo,’’ ElNuevoDía, January 17, 2000.
3 In 1954 two commercial stations began broadcasting in Puerto Rico: Telemundo
wkaq-tv (channel 2) and wapa-tv (channel 4). wkaq-Telemundo was owned by
Puerto Rican entrepreneur Angel Ramos and wapa-tv was under the ownership
of Puerto Rican businessman Ramón Quiñones. Toward the end of the 1950s and
the beginning of the 1960s, three stations began operations on the island: wrik
(channel 7), wipr (channel 6, the Commonwealth television station), and wkmb
(channel 11). wipr was the first educational station in Puerto Rico and in Latin
America. For more information on Puerto Rican television ownership changes, see
Rodolfo B. Popelnik, ‘‘Puerto Rico,’’ in Encyclopedia of Television, ed. Horace New-
comb (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997), 1319–21. For information on the
beginnings of Puerto Rico’s commercial television, see the newspaper articles, ‘‘Al
llegar la televisión necesitará más asientos,’’ ElMundo, March 26, 1954; ‘‘El auge de la
televisión sigue en marcha,’’ El Mundo, November 15, 1954; ‘‘La wkaq-tv sigue los
pasos de la wkaq,’’ ElMundo, March 26, 1954; ‘‘wkaq comenzará transmisiones,’’ El
Mundo, February 12, 1954; and ‘‘wapa-tv inauguró sus transmisiones,’’ El Mundo,
May 3, 1954.
4 América Rodríguez, ‘‘Creating an Audience and Remapping a Nation: A Brief His-
toryofU.S.SpanishLanguageBroadcasting,’’ QuarterlyReviewofFilmandTelevision
16, nos. 3–4 (1999): 357–75; John Sinclair, Latin American Television: A Global View
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999); John Sinclair, ‘‘From Latin Americans to
Latinos: Spanish-Language Television and Its Audiences’’ (paper presented at the
Cultural Industries and Dialogue Between Civilizations in the Americas, Montreal,
Canada, April 2002); and Federico Subervi-Vélez, Charles Ramírez-Berg, Patricia
Constantakis-Valdés, Chon Noriega, Diana Ríos, and Kenton T. Wilkinson, ‘‘Mass
Communication and Hispanics,’’ in Handbook of Hispanic Cultures in the United
States: Sociology, ed. Félix Padilla (Houston: Arte Público Press, 1994), 304–57.
5 Some of the limited research on Puerto Rican television has focused on the U.S.
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