notes
e
preface
1 Prasenjit Duara, SovereigntyandAuthenticity (Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003);
Rana Mitter, The Manchurian Myth: Nationalism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Modern
China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000); Louise Young, Japan’s Total
Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); Yoshihisa Tak Matsusaka,
The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904–1932 (Cambridge: Harvard University Asia
Center, 2001).
2 Benedict Anderson, ImaginedCommunities (London: Verso, 1991). Partha Chatterjee,
The Nation and Its Fragments (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993); Ranajit
Guha, Dominance Without Hegemony: History and Power in Colonial India (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1998).
3 Han-Chinese from China proper were also considered colonialists in Manchuria.
4 Duara, Sovereignty and Authenticity; Mitter, The Manchurian Myth; Young, Japan’s Total
Empire; Shin Chubaek, Manju chiyo ˘k haninu ˘i minjok undongsa (1920–45) (Korean Na-
tional Movement in Manchuria) (Seoul: Aseamunhwasa, 1999); Yoon Hwitak,
Ilchjeha ManjugukYo ˘n’gu (A Study of the Manchukuo State under the Japanese Rule)
(Seoul: Iljogak, 1996); Kim Cheo ˘l, ‘‘Mollakhanu ˘n sinsaeng: ‘Manjuu ˘i kkumkwa
Nonggunu ˘i odok’’ (Collapsing Rebirth: Dream of Manchuria and Misreading of
Nonggun) in Sangho Hakpo 9 (2002): 123–58; and Lee Kyo ˘nghun, ‘‘Harbinu ˘i puru˘n
hanu ˘l: ‘Pyo ˘kkongmuhan’ gwa taedonga kongyo ˘ng’’ (Blue Sky in Harbin: ‘Pyo˘k-
kongmuhan’ and the East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere), in Kim Incheol and Sin
Hyo ˘nggi (eds.), Munhaksogu ˘iFascism (Fascism in Korean Literature) (Seoul: Samin,
2001), 190–234.
5 The name Kando was first used by Koreans. It is said that the Chinese Qing gov-
ernment (1644–1911) came to recognize this name in 1904, when Lee Pomyun, a
KoreanofficialwhowasdispatchedbytheKoreanChoso˘ngovernment(1392–1910)
to protect Koreans and organize armies in this region, referred to this region as
Kando in his letter to the magistrate of the Chinese Dunhua county. In the letter,
Lee Pomyun criticized the Chinese landlords for oppressing Korean peasants in
the region.
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