g lo s s A ry
Terms are Spanish unless indicated otherwise.
agricultor mediano: Mid-size landowner
agricultores: Farmers
alcalde, alcalde campo: Two positions in the civil-religious system of rank and
allegado: Relationship between a colono and another person to cultivate land and
share obligations owed to the hacienda
area asociativa: Land reserved for collective production
arrepentidos: Repentants; deserters from Shining Path reincorporated into community
autogestionaria: Self-managed enterprise, as opposed to state enterprise
ayllu (Quechua): Indigenous pre-Hispanic kinship and territorial unit
barrio: Neighborhood, usually of the poor
cacique: Indigenous hereditary authority in colonial Peru
campesino: Peasant
caporal: Private guard on an hacienda
carajo: Vulgar expletive
caramba(s): Expression of wonder and amazement
cargos: Positions in the civil-religious system of rank and authority in a community
casa hacienda: Hacienda house
caudillo: Strong-armed political leader in Latin America
ceviche: Raw seafood in lemon and chili sauce
chicha (Quechua): Home-brewed maize beer
cholo/a: Depending on context and tone of voice, a derogatory or endearing term for
lower-class people of Indian background
chusco: Rough, of poor but hardy quality; used to refer to breeds of animals
colonato: The practice of granting a subsistence plot in exchange for work on an
colono: Resident serf on an hacienda
comandante: Officer in charge
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