1. A longer exegesis is Seigel, “Beyond Compare”; see also Seigel, “The Point of
2. Stolcke, “Brasil,” 216; see also D. Silva, “Facts of Blackness,” 207.
3. Du Bois, “The Negro Race in the United States of America”; Rogers, As Nature
Leads; Rogers, Nature Knows No Color-Line; Ardizzone, “Red-Blooded Americans”;
Joel Williamson, New People; Mencke, Mulattoes and Race Mixture; Sollors, Beyond
Ethnicity; Toplin, “Reinterpreting Comparative Race Relations”; Skidmore, “Toward
a Comparative Analysis of Race Relations since Abolition in Brazil and the United
States”; Skidmore, Black into White; Skidmore, “Bi-Racial U.S.A. vs. Multi-Racial Bra-
zil.” White-supremacist racial “scientists” corroborate this work, despite quite the
opposite intent; see the likes of E. Cox, White America; E. Cox, The South’s Part in
Mongrelizing the Nation; Reuter, The Mulatto in the United States; Shannon, The Racial
Integrity of the American Negro; Stone, Studies in the American Race Problem.
4. The literature on racism in Brazil critiquing the myth of racial democracy is
far too extensive to list here, for it could include nearly every academic book on
race since 1950. A good review of the earlier material is Costa, “The Myth of Racial
Democracy,” and more recently, J. Dávila, “Expanding Perspectives on Race in Bra-
5. Singh, Black Is a Country, 44.
6. Kelley, “How the West Was One,” 124; my emphasis; see also Kelley, “‘But a Local
Phase of a World Problem’”; Gilroy, The Black Atlantic; Kelley and Lemelle, Imagin-
ing Home; R. Thompson, Flash of the Spirit; Edwards, The Practice of Diaspora; Mann
and Bay, Rethinking the African Diaspora; and Matory, Black Atlantic Religion; see also
Matory, “The English Professors of Brazil.”
7. So does Mintz, “The Localization of Anthropological Practice”; see also Matory,
Black Atlantic Religion, 268–69, and passim.
8. Seigel, “Beyond Compare”; Seigel, “World History’s Narrative Problem.”
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