1. William Henry, “Correcting Oscar Misceaux,” Chicago Defender, January 22, 1927.
Henry is also quoted in Regester, “The African- American Press and Race Movies,
2. “Oscar Micheaux In,” Chicago Defender, September 24, 1927.
3. Quoted in Regester, “Black Films, White Censors,” 183, and Green, With a
Crooked Stick, 78.
4. Quoted in “Going Abroad: Noted Motion Picture Producer Soon Sails for
Europe,” Chicago Defender, January 31, 1920.
5. Bowser and Spence, Writing Himself into History, 20.
1. William Foster [Juli Jones Jr., pseud.], “News of the Moving Picture,” Freeman,
December 20, 1913. It is notable that a century later the Ethiopian- born independent
ﬁlmmaker Haile Gerima would use the same language to describe the response by
audiences to his ﬁlm Sankofa (1993): “Why would one movie become what it became?
Hunger. Not the ﬁlm. Hunger” (Haile Gerima, unpublished oral history interview by
Jacqueline Stewart, Allyson Nadia Field, Jan- Christopher Horak, and Zeinabu irene
Davis, September 13, 2010, L.A. Rebellion Oral History Project, University of Califor-
nia, Los Angeles [ucla], Film and Television Archive, Los Angeles, CA).
2. J. Gaines, Fire and Desire, 107.
3. Brundage, “Reconsidering Booker T. Washington and Up From Slavery,” 9.
4. Kevin Gaines has shown that the origins of the concept of uplift preceded Wash-
ington’s political activity by far and can be traced to antebellum eﬀorts among anti-
slavery crusaders as well as among free Black communities (Uplifting the Race, 31).
5. Washington, Up from Slavery, 99–100.
6. Du Bois, “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” 35.
7. Washington, Up from Slavery, 100.