Items in newspapers and magazines are cited in the notes. They are not included in
archives and special collections
Booker T. Washington Papers, 1853–1946, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress,
D. W. Griﬃth Papers, 1897–1954. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America,
George P. Johnson Negro Film Collection, Department of Special Collections, Univer-
sity of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
Hampton University Archives, Hampton University Museum, Hampton, VA.
L.A. Rebellion Oral History Project, University of California, Los Angeles, Film and
Television Archive, Los Angeles, CA.
naacp Records, 1842–1999, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington,
Tuskegee University Archives, Tuskegee, AL.
Harvard College Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Abbott, Lynn, and Doug Seroﬀ. To Do This, You Must Know How: Music Pedagogy in
the Black Gospel Quartet Tradition. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2013.
Acland, Charles R., and Haidee Wasson. “Introduction: Utility and Cinema.” In Useful
Cinema, edited by Charles R. Acland and Haidee Wasson, 1–14. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 2011.
Allen, James, Hilton Als, Congressman John Lewis, and Leon F. Litwack. Without
Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms, 2000.