introduction
1 Matienzo, Gobierno del Perú, 48: “apartados y escondidos en
huaycos y quebradas . . . ni pueden ser dotrinado ni ser hom-
bres perpetuamente, no estando juntos en pueblos”; BPR, II/
2846, N. 12, “Memorial dado por el racionero Villarreal al vir-
rey Toledo” [c. 1570], f. 304v; “una casilla que mas parece de
monejos que de hombres, . . . vivir vestialmente, durmiendo
con su madre e hijas.”
2 Murra, “El control vertical de un máximo de pisos ecológi-
cos en la economía de las sociedades andinas,” in Formaciones
económicas, 59 115. Scholars have seen the archipelago model
most clearly in the regions surrounding and south of Lake Titi-
caca, while some scholars glimpsed it in one form or another
in many other parts of the Andes. Van Buren, “Rethinking the
Vertical Archipelago”; Goldstein, “Communities without Bor-
ders”; Angelis- Harmening, ‘Cada uno tiene en la puna su gente.’
3 Murra did, however, observe that this was significant: “We
note that the earliest sixteenth- century observers reached cer-
tain conclusions which have been confirmed by modern schol-
arship”: “Andean Societies Before 1532,” 61. Beginning in the
1980s, Murra became interested in early colonial ethnographic
officials, although he published fairly little on the subject. See
Murra, “Nos Hazen Mucha Ventaja” and “Le débat sur l’avenir
des Andes en 1562.”
4 Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, 83 88; Eagle, “Beard-
Pulling and Furniture- Rearranging.” The composition of the
Audiencias varied between jurisdictions and over time, but
each normally had several judges, called oidores, a president,
an alcalde de crimen (criminal judge) and one or more fiscales
noTeS
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