(A): Andean (Quechua, Aymara, or both)
(C): Caribbean (words the Spanish borrowed from Taino and used
throughout the Americas)
alcalde (S). Ofﬁcial in Spanish and colonial Indian municipalities
who presided over the cabildo and combined the functions of
mayor and judge. A municipality typically had two alcaldes serv-
ing together, selected annually by lot or election. (The alcalde, also
known as alcalde ordinario, was distinct from the alcalde mayor, an
appointed ofﬁcial who oversaw a larger area, often with military
alguacil or alguacil mayor (S). Municipal constable who held a place
on the cabildo. The inspectors (visitadores) in the Visita General
were accompanied by alguaciles.
altiplano (S). Arid high plateau in the south- central Andes.
anejo (S). Annex village, typically founded as a satellite and depen-
dency of an existing reducción that was designated its cabecera.
aqlla (A). Chosen woman. The aqllakuna (plural) were selected by
the Inca regime to live in communal houses, serving the state and
the ofﬁcial religious cults.
Audiencia (S). 1. Colonial high court; 2. Administrative district
governed by that court. A viceroyalty had several Audiencias, each
composed of a presidente (presiding judge), several oidores (judges),
and other ofﬁcials.