NOTES
introduction
1. As quoted in “B2B Means Business,” in The avn Adult Entertainment Expo Show
Guide, January 2008, 50. Copy on file with author.
2. For a discussion of Sex and the City’s infamous vibrator episode, see Lynn Co-
mella, “(Safe) Sex and the City: On Vibrators, Masturbation, and the Myth of ‘Real’
Sex,” Feminist Media Studies 3, no. 1 (2003): 107–110; for a discussion of the economy
of Fifty Shades of Grey, see Lynn Comella, “Fifty Shades of Erotic Stimulation,” Femi-
nist Media Studies 13, no. 3 (2013): 563–566; for discussions regarding the emergence
of a women’s market for sexual products, see Feona Attwood, “Fashion and Passion:
Marketing Sex to Women,” Sexualities 8, no. 4 (2005): 392–406; Clarissa Smith, One for
the Girls: The Pleasures and Practices of Reading Women’s Porn (Bristol, U.K.: Intellect,
2007); Merl Storr, Latex and Lingerie: Shopping for Pleasure at Ann Summers Parties
(Oxford: Berg, 2003).
3. Debby Herbenick, Michael Reece, Stephanie A. Sanders, Brian Dodge, Annahita
Ghassemi, and J. Dennis Fortenberry, “Prevalence and Characteristics of Vibrator Use
by Women in the United States: Results from a Nationally Representative Study,” Jour-
nal of Sexual Medicine 6 (2009): 1857–1866.
4. Hilary Howard, “Vibrators Carry the Conversation,” New York Times, April 20,
2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/21/fashion/21VIBRATORS.html?_r=0.
5. Emma Gray, “Vibrator Sales Up—Are Sex Toys a Woman’s Best Friend?” Huffing-
ton Post, May 8, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/08/vibrator- sales- sex
- toys- women_n_1501352.html. Sherri Shaulis, senior editor of pleasure products at
Adult Video News, noted in a personal correspondence that it is necessary to contextu-
alize this $15 billion figure. This number reflects sales globally, not nationally, and in-
cludes everything from $10 bullet vibrators to $7,000 sex dolls. It also includes sexual
lubricants, sex furniture, and so on. And while it is very likely that this often- quoted
figure is exaggerated, Shaulis acknowledges that “no real [sales] data exist.” For articles
citing this figure, see David Rosen, “What the $15 Billion Sex Toy Industry Tells Us
about Sexuality Today,” Alternet, March 7, 2013, http://www.alternet.org/sex- amp
- relationships/what- 15- billion- sex- toy- industry- tells- us- about- sexuality- today; Janet
Burns, “How the ‘Niche’ Sex Toy Market Grew into an Unstoppable $15B Industry,”
Forbes, July 16, 2016, http://www.forbes.com/sites/janetwburns/2016/07/15/adult- expo
- founders- talk- 15b- sex- toy- industry- after- 20- years- in- the- fray/#5d2b394f38a1.
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