N OT E S
1 Arendt, The Human Condition, 1.
2 Volker M. Welter has written an illuminating essay, “From Disc to Sphere,”
about the iconography of Earth seen from outer space; some of the infor-
mation here draws on his research. He notes that the August 1959 photo-
graph is but one of many to have been declared the “ﬁrst” of its kind, each
of which claimed the title based on diﬀerences “with regard to distance
from Earth, technical equipment used, and size of surface captured” (24).
3 Arendt, The Human Condition, 11.
4 Leonard, “Stewart Brand on the Long View,” 104.
5 Lacan, “The Mirror Stage,” 78.
6 Diedrichsen and Franke, The Whole Earth, accessed February 7, 2015,
7 Leonard, “Stewart Brand on the Long View,” 104.
8 Arendt, The Human Condition, 251.
9 This is the ﬁrst appearance of the term, according to the Oxford English
10 Garb, “Virtual Reality,” 119, 118.
11 Garb, “Virtual Reality,” 119, 120.
12 Turing, “On Computable Numbers.”
13 How We Became Posthuman, 13. Along with Hayles there are numerous
scholars and practitioners working in media studies and related areas
who examine the fate of embodied, gendered, raced, and variously abi-
litied and economically resourced encounters with digital media and the